Development of carbon-based materials to remove extracorporeally anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-8, and IL-6 from the circulatory blood stream is a focus of research in NMG. It has been shown that the control of pore size with a large volume of slit-shaped mesopores (specifically in carbide-derived carbons) is a key factor to achieving efficient removal of proteins. In particular, the surface area accessible by the protein governs the rate and effectiveness of the adsorption process. However, the adsorption of proteins in a confined environment (pores and narrow channels) differs from the adsorption on “flat” surfaces.
Therefore, our current research on expanded graphite materials involves understanding adsorption mechanism through the surface-protein interactions. We also extensively work on modification/optimization of surface chemistry of expanded graphite for adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. In the initial step of our work the adsorption will be performed in a simple experimental design (equilibrium conditions) in order to evaluate the best adsorbent and rapid adsorption process of biomolecules. Then based on the adsorptive properties determined in the equilibrium conditions, the next step is to develop a system that uses these materials to clean blood, in the same method that the blood would be cleaned in a hospital setting (in the dynamic conditions).
- Yachamanei, G. Yushin, S.H. Yeon, Y. Gogotsi, C. Howell, S. Sandeman, G. Phillips, S. Mikhalovsky,Mesoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon for Cytokine Removal from Blood Plasma, Biomaterials 31, 4789-4794 (2010).
- Presser, S.-H. Yeon, C. Vakifahmetoglu, C. A. Howell, S. R. Sandeman, P. Colombo, S. Mikhalovsky, Y. Gogotsi, Hierarchical Porous Carbide-Derived Carbons for the Removal of Cytokines from Blood Plasma, Adv. Healthcare Mater. 1, 796-800 (2012).
- V. Kharlamova1, V. N. Mochalin, M. R. Lukatskaya, J. Niu, V. Presser, S. Mikhalovsky, Y. Gogotsi, Adsorption of Proteins in Channels of Carbon Nanotubes: Effect of Surface Chemistry, Mater. Express 3(1), 1-10 (2013).